Specifically, Aristotle argued that the good life is the life of excellent rational activity.  Symptoms of BPD may be triggered by events considered normal to others. , Because of concerns around stigma, and because of a move away from the original theoretical basis for the term (see history), there is ongoing debate about renaming borderline personality disorder.  Benazzi et al. , There are also sex differences in borderline personality disorders. Let your self-consciousness, your scrutiny, your self-interrogation, exhaust themselves on that; and if otherwise fortunately circumstanced you will inhale happiness with the air you breathe, without dwelling on it or thinking about it, without either forestalling it in imagination, or putting it to flight by fatal questioning. The other Cluster B disorders, antisocial, histrionic, and narcissistic, similarly affect about half of BPD patients (lifetime incidence), with again narcissistic affecting one third or more.  Moreover, of those who achieved recovery from symptoms, only 5.9% experienced recurrences. , Personal happiness aims can be effected by cultural factors. For example, …  Psychiatric research has since shown BPD to be a valid, stable and clinically useful diagnosis in adolescent populations. Hearing loss may be present at birth or acquired at any time afterwards. , A BPD diagnosis in adolescence might predict that the disorder will continue into adulthood. Once make them so, and they are immediately felt to be insufficient. While many psychiatric diagnoses are believed to be associated with traumatic experiences occurring during critical periods of childhood, specific neurobiological factors have been identified within patients diagnosed with BPD. In subjective well-being measures, the primary distinction is between cognitive life evaluations and emotional reports.  Symptoms may include marked mood swings, irritability, depressed mood, feeling hopeless or suicidal, a subjective sense of being overwhelmed or out of control, anxiety, binge eating, difficulty concentrating, and substantial impairment of interpersonal relationships.  Accordingly, national treatment guidelines recommend the diagnosis and treatment of BPD among adolescents in many countries including Australia, the United Kingdom, Spain, and Switzerland. , The lifetime risk of suicide among people with BPD is between 3% and 10%. In some people with bipolar disorder, episodes of depression or mania last for at least two weeks at a time, which is much longer than moods last in people with BPD. Caregivers were also reported to have failed to provide needed protection and to have neglected their child's physical care. , Films and television shows have portrayed characters either explicitly diagnosed with or exhibiting traits suggestive of BPD. 2005, James Mackaye "Economy of happiness", 1906, Niek Persoon "Happiness doesn't just happen", 2006, Ben Renshaw "The secrets of happiness", 2003. What Are They?  People with BPD might do this because it gives them the feeling of immediate relief from their emotional pain, but in the long term may feel shame and guilt over consequences of this behavior. However, this would require that the underlying mechanism causing these symptoms be the same for both conditions.  These symptoms are sometimes referred to as “pseudo-psychotic” or “psychotic-like,” terms that suggest a distinction from those seen in primary psychotic disorders. , While strongly desiring intimacy, people with BPD tend toward insecure, avoidant or ambivalent, or fearfully preoccupied attachment patterns in relationships, and often view the world as dangerous and malevolent. 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Family therapy is considered a helpful component of treatment for adolescents with BPD. According to certain standards, East European countries when ruled by Communist parties were less happy than Western ones, even less happy than other equally poor countries.  While movies and visual media often sensationalize people with BPD by portraying them as violent, the majority of researchers agree that people with BPD are unlikely to physically harm others.  The condition must be differentiated from an identity problem or substance use disorders, among other possibilities. One possible explanation is that a stable environment buffers against its development.  A majority of psychiatric staff report finding individuals with BPD moderately to extremely difficult to work with and more difficult than other client groups. In Advaita Vedanta, the ultimate goal of life is happiness, in the sense that duality between Atman and Brahman is transcended and one realizes oneself to be the Self in all. These two neural networks are seen to be dysfunctionally operative in the limbic system, but the specific regions vary widely in individuals, which calls for the analysis of more neuroimaging studies. Many people have their own ideas about what it means to identify as a man.  A later study found that the relationship between emotional vulnerability and BPD symptoms is not necessarily mediated by thought suppression. However, with the rise of individualism, begotten partly by Protestantism and capitalism, the links between duty in a society and happiness were gradually broken.  Short-term hospitalization has not been found to be more effective than community care for improving outcomes or long-term prevention of suicidal behavior in those with BPD.  A 2012 study found that problems in working memory might contribute to greater impulsivity in people with BPD. these small, "last men" who seek after only their own pleasure and health, avoiding all danger, exertion, difficulty, challenge, struggle are meant to seem contemptible to Nietzsche's reader. When we meet them they impress us as just having met with some good luck, or that they have some good news to tell you. They may also struggle with a feeling of emptiness, fear of …  However, ongoing misconceptions about the diagnosis of BPD in adolescence remain prevalent among mental health professionals. , In psychoanalytic theory, the stigmatization among mental health care providers may be thought to reflect countertransference (when a therapist projects his or her own feelings on to a client). However, these links may apply to personality disorders in general. , Western ethicists have made arguments for how humans should behave, either individually or collectively, based on the resulting happiness of such behavior. Using these measures, the report identifies the countries with the highest levels of happiness. , However, their frequent expressions of intense pain, self-harming, or suicidal behavior may instead represent a method of mood regulation or an escape mechanism from situations that feel unbearable. The consequence was a redefinition of the moral terms. Chan School of Public Health, United States Declaration of Independence, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/happiness/#DouAboValHap, 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199571178.001.0001, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/happiness/, "Two Philosophical Problems in the Study of Happiness", https://www.slu.edu/colleges/AS/philos/site/people/faculty/Haybron/, http://www.happinessandwellbeing.org/project-team/, https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/04/13/happiness-and-its-discontents/, https://www.satori.lv/article/kas-ir-laime, https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium.MAGAZINE-why-nobel-prize-winner-daniel-kahneman-gave-up-on-happiness-1.6528513, "Happy | Definition of happy in English by Oxford Dictionaries", "HAPPINESS | meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary", https://personal.eur.nl/veenhoven/Pub2010s/2012k-full.pdf, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/well-being/, http://www.actionforhappiness.org/why-happiness, "Lay Conceptions of Happiness: Associations With Reported Well-Being, Personality Traits, and Materialism", https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/The_Big_Short_(film)#Mark_Baum, https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/happiness/#HedVerEmoSta, "Who Are the Happiest People in the World? , Regardless that it is an infradiagnosed disorder, a few studies have shown that the "lower expressions" of it might lead to wrong diagnoses. For Aristotle the term eudaimonia, which is translated as 'happiness' or 'flourishing' is an activity rather than an emotion or a state. , Lifetime comorbid (co-occurring) conditions are common in BPD. CBT is known to reduce some anxiety and mood symptoms as well as reduce suicidal thoughts and self-harming behaviors. Negativistic, impatient, restless, as well as stubborn, defiant, sullen, pessimistic, and resentful; easily feels "slighted" and quickly disillusioned.  The hippocampus tends to be smaller in people with BPD, as it is in people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).  Approximately half the individuals who commit suicide meet criteria for a personality disorder.  The term "borderline personality disorder" was coined in American psychiatry in the 1960s. Hearing loss may occur in one or both ears. , Cultural views on happiness have changed over time.  Some researchers suggest there may be a common etiology underlying hallucinations in BPD and those in other conditions like psychotic and affective disorders.  Diagnosis is based both on the person's report of their symptoms and on the clinician's own observations. , Happiness forms a central theme of Buddhist teachings. Happiness also depends on religion in countries where free choice is constrained. , Robert O. Friedel has suggested that the behavior of Theresa Dunn, the leading character of Looking for Mr. Goodbar (1975) is consistent with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. By the end of the study, 73.5% of participants were found to be in remission. For those with BPD who have experienced childhood trauma, rs3798347-T and rs10947563-A have been associated, specifically in individuals with both BPD diagnosis and a history of childhood physical abuse and emotional neglect. 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